Traffic congestion is a serious problem that almost every big city will face. It has gradually developed from local peak congestion in a city to full-time congestion. First- and second-tier cities are also under the pressure of traffic congestion, and even some third-tier cities have begun to experience traffic congestion. Traffic congestion not only increases the cost of travel, but also increases the incidence of traffic accidents. Especially during the rush hour of residents' commute to and from get off work, the time and expenses used are seriously wasted due to traffic jams, which affects the quality of life of residents, and the large-scale and long-term congestion in cities also seriously affects the health of society and economy. developing.
Transportation is an important aspect of everyone's daily life, and it is also one of the strategic foundations of the entire country, which is related to politics, economy, military, environment and other aspects. Transportation extending in all directions is an important infrastructure for the national economy. The development of intelligent transportation depends on the development of a series of new technologies. The rise of the Internet of Things has led to a leap-forward development of intelligent transportation. The development goals of the Internet of Things and traditional intelligent transportation systems are consistent to some extent, and the development of intelligent transportation has laid a good foundation for technology application awareness and technology popularization in the whole industry. The Internet of Things is used in the field of transportation, especially in logistics transportation field with good adaptability.
The impact of IoT on intelligent transportation
The concept of the Internet of Things was first proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1999. Its concept relies on radio frequency identification (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) technology and equipment, combined with the Internet according to the agreed communication protocol, so that the information of objects can be intelligently identified and Management, to realize the network formed by the interconnection of item information.
With the development of technology, the connotation of the Internet of Things has been continuously enriched. In 2011, the Institute of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of my country defined the Internet of Things as: The Internet of Things is an extended application and network extension of the communication network and the Internet. Intelligent equipment perceives and recognizes the physical world, conducts computation, processing and knowledge mining through network transmission and interconnection, realizes information interaction and seamless link between people and objects, objects and objects, and achieves real-time control, precise management and scientific decision-making of the physical world. .
The Internet of Things involves sensing, control, network communication, microelectronics, computers, software, embedded systems and other technical fields, covering a lot of key technologies.
According to the analysis of the Institute of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the IoT network architecture consists of a perception layer, a network layer and an application layer. The perception layer realizes the intelligent perception recognition, information collection and processing and automatic control of the physical world, and connects the physical entity to the network layer and the application layer through the communication module. The network layer mainly realizes the transmission, routing and control of information. The application layer provides general basic service facilities, capabilities and resource calling interfaces such as information processing and computing to realize various applications of the Internet of Things in many fields.
At present, the application of the Internet of Things in the world is still in its infancy, and the technical basis of the application is mainly based on radio frequency identification and sensors, and most of them are small-scale experimental projects. Because the technology and application of the information industry in developed countries are relatively advanced, the rise and application of the Internet of Things are also relatively advanced in developed countries. The United States is the country with the most extensive application of the Internet of Things, and its application involves many industries.
Although the development goals of the intelligent transportation system and the transportation Internet of things are similar, and the technical elements and application scope are similar to some extent, the application background of the Internet of things is broader, and its network breadth, information volume and network construction ideas are traditional ITS can't compare. The intelligent transportation system is a top-down information development and utilization method, focusing on the collection, development and utilization of information from the perspective of managers, while the application of the Internet of Things in the field of transportation focuses on the bottom-up information collection and utilization mode. , the accuracy and coverage of the collection of information resources are different, the intensity of development and utilization of information resources is also different, and the business models used are different, and the social benefits produced will also be significantly different.
It can be considered that the intelligent transportation system is a relatively primary stage in the development of intelligent transportation, and the Internet of Things in transportation is a stage of technological and conceptual upgrading in the development of intelligent transportation. The Internet of Things will provide a qualitative leap and huge development space for the development of intelligent transportation.
The Internet of Things is a typical case of intelligent transportation applications in the era
With the rapid development of new information technology in the fields of simulation, communication network, real-time control, etc., intelligent transportation system has begun to enter people's field of vision. The original intention of developing the intelligent transportation system is to deal with the increasingly serious traffic congestion problem, but the intelligent transportation in the Internet of Things era is not just to solve the traffic jam problem. The following selects a few typical applications at present to introduce the intelligent transportation in the Internet of Things era.
1. Non-parking toll system
The Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system is the first intelligent transportation system in my country that has been applied on a large scale nationwide. It can automatically collect tolls when vehicles pass through toll booths at normal speed, reducing traffic generated near toll booths. probability of congestion.
In this toll collection system, the vehicle needs to be equipped with a device called an electronic tag that can be uniquely identified by the system, and a tag reader and a corresponding computer that can read/write the electronic tag are installed on the lane or road of the toll station. charging system. When the vehicle passes through the toll station, the driver does not need to stop and pay the toll, but only needs to pass at the speed allowed by the system, and the on-board electronic tag can automatically exchange information with the tag reader installed on the roadside or on the gantry. Vehicle information, and upload the collected information to the backend server, the server identifies the road user based on the information, and then automatically deducts the toll from the road user's account. Now major banks also support ETC business processing, which is convenient and fast, such as Bank of China, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank, etc.
At present, ETC products are mainly used in highway and road and bridge toll collection systems. According to the "Twelfth Five-Year" development plan of the Ministry of Transport, during the "Twelfth Five-Year" period, the number of ETC lanes nationwide will reach 6,000, and the number of users of electronic tags will reach 5 million. In March of this year, the Ministry of Transport issued a document to start the construction of ETC nationwide networking, and strive to basically realize the national ETC networking by the end of 2015. In the future, ETC will have broad market prospects in the field of urban intelligent transportation.
2. Real-time traffic information service
Real-time traffic information service is one of the most important applications of intelligent transportation systems, which can provide travelers with real-time information, such as traffic routes, traffic accidents, safety reminders, weather conditions, etc. Efficient information service systems can tell drivers their exact current location, inform them of traffic and road conditions in the current road segment and nearby areas, and help drivers choose the best route. It can help drivers find nearby parking spaces and even reserve parking spaces. The intelligent transportation system can also provide passengers with real-time bus arrival information and bus location information, which is convenient for planning users' waiting time and travel time.
The implementation of traffic information service is a kind of collaborative perception task. The sensors installed at each traffic intersection perceive the road condition information in real time, and upload it to the main control center in real time. Through the data mining and traffic planning analysis system, data fusion and analysis processing are carried out on the massive information. , and released to the public via the communication tower.
For example, the application "Ningbo Tong" launched by the Ningbo government provides 18 convenience services in 3 categories: before travel, during travel, and convenience services. What's more convenient is that it integrates traffic police, urban management, meteorology and other departments, dozens of The traffic information of a business system, covering the city's traffic facilities, vehicles and all traffic events, provides comprehensive and real-time information for travelers.
3. Intelligent traffic management
Intelligent traffic management mainly includes traffic control equipment, such as traffic signals, ramp flow control and dynamic traffic information boards on highways. At the same time, a city or a provincial traffic management center needs to obtain the traffic flow status of the entire area in order to detect accidents, dangerous weather events or other factors that have potential threats to the lane in time.
Intelligent traffic management is a comprehensive intelligent product, applied to important Internet of Things technologies such as wireless communication, computing technology, perception technology, video vehicle monitoring, global positioning system GPS, detection vehicles and equipment. This includes many IoT devices, such as: microcontrollers for connected cars, RFID devices, microchips, video camera devices, GPS receivers, navigation systems, DSRC devices, etc. These devices are not used in many civilian applications. Offline government procurement, but due to the rise of the Internet of Things in recent years, online supply platforms have gradually become available, and the rise of these platforms has enabled the promotion of the concept of intelligent transportation.
Intelligent ramp flow control is one of the applications of intelligent traffic management. The guiding light is set at the entrance of the highway to guide vehicles to divert into the highway, which can reduce the probability of the highway traffic disconnection. At present, about 20 major cities in the United States have begun to apply this technology.
Intelligent transportation is an inevitable product of the forward development of the transportation industry in the information society. In the final analysis, the development of intelligent transportation is to improve people's quality of life and increase production efficiency. Considering the current reality of our country, the development of intelligent transportation must follow the scientific development concept of "comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable". Improve the intelligent level of my country's transportation.