The development level of the medical and health system is related to the physical and mental health of the people and social harmony, and has always been one of the hot spots of social concern. Smart medical care aims to realize accurate and real-time perception of medical information through Internet of Things technology, conduct comprehensive and scientific analysis, and make smart decisions, thereby improving the informatization level of medical services, providing first-class medical services for the people, and building a harmonious medical system. The social environment lays a solid foundation.
1. Medical information perception
At present, most medical information can be sensed or collected by medical sensors. A medical sensor is an electronic device, especially a sensor used in the biomedical field. It can sense the physiological information of the human body and convert these physiological information into electrical signals that have a definite functional relationship with it. Body temperature sensors, electronic sphygmomanometers, pulse oximeters, blood glucose meters, ECG sensors and EEG sensors are the most commonly used sensors in smart healthcare.
2. Transmission of medical information
Wireless human local area network
Wireless human body local area network uses short-range wireless communication technology to connect a centralized control unit worn or implanted on the human body with multiple miniature sensor units. Typical physiological sensors are either wearable or implantable, such as electrocardiogram sensors, blood pressure sensors, blood oxygen sensors, body temperature sensors, and behavior sensors. The wireless body area network is mainly aimed at health monitoring applications. It can collect and record the physiological parameters of chronic patients such as diabetes, asthma and heart disease for a long time and continuously, and provide corresponding services for patients when needed. When the signal is abnormal, the family members and the hospital will be notified in time, and the appropriate amount of insulin will be automatically injected for the patient when the insulin of the diabetic patient is found to be declining.
In the mobile medical care application, the nurse can use the handheld mobile terminal device to quickly transmit the relevant information of the patient to the background database of the hospital information system through the hospital wireless local area network, and can also read the patient from the background database according to the patient's unique identification number. hospital records, test results, etc. A wireless local area network can also be connected to a wide area network to transmit data and information to remote servers. In telemedicine applications, the real-time physiological data, activity records and living conditions of the elderly at home can be transmitted to the hospital data center for analysis through the wireless local area network deployed in the home, and the family or the doctor on duty can be notified in the event of an emergency. In addition, wireless local area network can also be used for indoor positioning.
WAN is suitable for long-distance transmission of medical information, mainly used for information transmission in applications such as telemedicine, remote monitoring, and remote consultation.
3. Medical Information Processing
Medical information is multimodal, including pure data (such as physical parameters, test results), signals (such as EMG signals, EEG signals, etc.), images (such as B-ultrasound, CT and other medical imaging equipment detection results), text ( such as patient identification records, symptom descriptions, written representations of test and diagnosis results), as well as information such as voice and video. Medical information processing involves many fields such as image processing technology, time series processing technology, data stream processing technology, voice processing technology and video processing technology.
4. Intelligent medical monitoring
Intelligent medical monitoring refers to the real-time monitoring of the health status of the monitored person by collecting various physiological indicators such as body temperature, blood pressure, and pulse through sensing equipment.
Mobile vital signs monitoring
Implant mobile and miniaturized electronic diagnostic instruments, such as electronic blood pressure meters, electronic blood glucose meters, etc., into the body of the monitored person or wear it on the monitored person, continuously record various physiological indicators, and communicate through the embedded device. The module wirelessly transmits information to medical staff or family members in a timely manner. Mobile vital signs monitoring is not limited by time and place, which not only facilitates the ward, but also makes up for the shortage of medical resources and alleviates the problem of unbalanced distribution of medical resources.
Real-time location of medical equipment and personnel
In the process of medical service, the real-time positioning of medical staff, patients and medical equipment can greatly improve the work process, improve the service quality and management level of the hospital, and facilitate the hospital to treat special patients (such as mental patients, mentally handicapped patients, etc.) The monitoring and management of emergency situations can be carried out in a timely manner.
Behavior Recognition and Fall Detection
The behavior recognition system is used to measure the distance that the user walks or runs, so as to calculate the energy consumed by the exercise, provide suggestions for the user's daily diet, and maintain energy balance and physical health. The fall detection system is to detect accidental falls for some special groups, especially hypertensive patients, and quickly alarm.
Telemedicine monitoring system Support home community telemedicine monitoring system, hospital clinical wireless medical monitoring system, bedside critical care monitoring and mobile patient monitoring. The telemedicine monitoring system consists of monitoring terminal equipment and wireless dedicated sensor nodes to form a micro-monitoring network. Medical sensor nodes are used to measure human physiological indicators such as body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, ECG, and EEG. The sensor node sends the collected data to the monitoring terminal equipment through wireless communication, and then the communication device on the monitoring terminal transmits the data to the server terminal equipment. In the telemedicine monitoring center, professional medical staff observe the data and provide Necessary counseling services and medical guidance to enable telemedicine.
6. Intelligent management of medical supplies
RFID electronic label identification technology is widely used in drug anti-counterfeiting. Manufacturers assign a unique serial number, or product electronic code, to each batch of medicines and even each vial they produce. The serial number of medicines and other related information are stored through RFID tags, and the RFID tags are pasted on each batch (bottle) of medicines. In the entire circulation process, all manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and users who may be involved in medicines can use RFID readers to read the serial numbers and other information of medicines, and can also access the database through the network according to the serial numbers of medicines. Check the authenticity of medicines.
The blood management based on RFID identification technology realizes the whole-process tracking and management of blood from blood donors to blood users. Blood donors first go through blood donation registration and physical examination, and then conduct blood collection after passing the test. Each bag of qualified blood is affixed with RFID tags, and the basic information of blood and blood donors is stored in the management database. When blood is in and out of the library, the basic information of blood can be inquired through the card reader, and the relevant information such as blood in and out time, storage location and staff can be recorded in the database. In the blood bank, the staff can check the inventory, check the storage location of blood bags, and record the storage environment information of blood. When using blood in hospitals or patients, the basic information of blood and blood donors can be read, and the entire transportation and management process of blood can be queried from the database through RFID codes.
Medical waste disposal
The medical waste monitoring system realizes the monitoring of the whole process of medical waste loading, transportation, transfer and incineration. When the medical garbage truck goes to the medical garbage room to collect the medical waste, the video of the system starts to monitor the collection process; the medical garbage is loaded into the turnover bucket, affixed with RFID tags and weighed, and the tag information and weight information are uploaded to the monitoring system in real time; When the garbage is loaded into the truck, the garbage truck is unlocked and the unlocking information is reported to the monitoring system; during the transportation process, the vehicle location is reported in real time through the GPS positioning system; in the garbage transfer center, the arrival time of the garbage truck and the distribution of medical waste will be reported. Time reporting; the incineration center will upload the arrival time of the garbage truck, and conduct video monitoring of the receiving process of the garbage. After the incineration is completed, the weight of the medical waste turnover bucket will be compared, and the information will be uploaded to the monitoring system.
7. Intelligent management of medical devices
Surgical Instrument Management
Configure an RFID tag for each surgical package to store the relevant information of the surgical instrument package (including surgical instrument type, serial number, quantity, packaging date, disinfection date, etc.), and medical staff can use handheld or desktop RFID readers. Read or write, and communicate with the background database through network technology, read or save the management information of the surgical instrument package, and realize the positioning, tracking, supervision and usage analysis of the surgical instrument package.
Medical device traceability
With the development of medical technology, implantable medical devices are more and more widely used in clinical medicine. Such medical devices are implanted, buried, and fixed in damaged or diseased parts of the body to support, repair or replace body functions, including pacemakers, artificial heart valves, artificial joints, and intraocular lenses. Implantable medical devices are high-risk special commodities, and the reliability of their quality and the effectiveness of their functions are directly related to the health and life safety of patients receiving implant therapy.
8. Smart Healthcare Services
Mobile outpatient infusion
The mobile outpatient infusion system realizes the process and intelligence of outpatient infusion management, which can improve the management level of the hospital and the work efficiency of medical staff, improve the verification process of patient identity and medicine, and facilitate the nurses to effectively respond to the patient's infusion service during the infusion service. Call, improve the environment of the outpatient infusion room, and provide the basis for the work assessment of medical staff. The nurse uses the scanning gun to scan the barcode on the patient's prescription, and according to the barcode, goes to the hospital information system to extract the patient's basic information, doctor's order and drug information, etc., and prints the barcode worn by the patient and the barcode on the infusion bag. During infusion, the nurse uses the mobile terminal to scan and compare the barcode of the patient and the barcode of the infusion bag, and transmit the information to the hospital information system for verification to confirm the patient information and dosage implementation. The system uses dual tags to ensure patient identities are matched to medications, reducing medical errors. At the same time, the patient's seat number is assigned, and the whole process of checking is realized during the infusion process to ensure the safety of medication.
Mobile nursing can assist and guide nurses to complete medical orders, improve nursing quality, save medical staff time, improve the ability to execute orders, control medical costs, and make hospital nursing more accurate, efficient and convenient. The RFID tag worn by the patient can record the patient's name, age, gender, drug allergy and other information. During the nursing process, the nurse reads the RFID information worn by the patient through the portable terminal, and queries the patient's related information from the medical information system server through the wireless network. Information and doctor's orders, such as patient's physiological indicators, nursing status, medication status, number of temperature measurements, etc. The nurse can record the specific execution information of the doctor's order through the portable terminal, including the patient's vital signs, medication status, treatment status, etc., and transmit the information to the medical information system to update the patient's nursing information.
Smart medication reminder
Smart Medication Reminder Reminders and detects whether the patient takes medication on time by recording information such as the time and usage of the medication. A team from Asia University has developed an RFID-based smart medicine cabinet to remind patients to take their medicines on time and accurately. After the user gets the medicine back from the hospital, each medicine box or package is equipped with an exclusive RFID tag, which records the usage, dosage and time of the medicine. When the medicine is put into the smart medicine cabinet, the medicine cabinet will record this information. When the medicine needs to be taken, the medicine cabinet will issue a voice notification, and the name and dosage of the medicine will also be displayed on the screen. The user wears an RFID identification tag on the wrist. If the medicine cabinet finds that the user's information does not match the information of the medicine taken, it will immediately warn the user that the wrong medicine has been taken. If the user does not take the medicine for more than 30 minutes after the reminder, the system will automatically send a message to notify the medical staff or family members.
Electronic medical record
Electronic medical records are used to record texts, symbols, charts, graphics, data, images and other information generated in the medical process, and can realize the storage, management, transmission and reproduction of information. It can also record personal health information, such as immunizations, health checkups, health status, etc.